The difficult road to success through the training of Antoine Baumgartner (1848-1856)

We have, in the middle of the XIXth century, the rare story of a young Genevois apprentice, Antoine Baumgartner. He was sent abroad by his father to learn the Trading business. This atypical life journey is nothing other than a specific illustration of general phenomena. More specifically, this story highlights a series of problems: arrival of the new elites, bourgeois pressure on children, the importance of family connections for education, are the subject in this excerpt from micro-history. We believe that the wealth of this story deserves an important place in this chapter.

Antoine Baumgartner (1832-1856) is particularly well documented thanks to a rich family archive, well preserved and yet not published. But the reader will no doubt be surprised to find a long history of the Baumgartner family, who is neither a family of bankers, nor a family of rich merchants. The experience of Antoine Baumgartner is symptomatic and perfectly illustrates the secondary training abroad with a prospect of an respectable position. The archives of this Family highlight the route of the family's young son, in quest of a career. In addition, although the Baumgartner family does not directly impact the business world of the XIXth century, it is part of the elite, middle class of Geneva. Finally, Antoine Baumgartner is none other than the son of Dr Baumgartner, who was a Geneva notable in the XIXth century. Who was committed, politically and known for his activity as a debater. In fact, Antoine Baumgartner was in a situation that presents many similarities with that of Alexandre Prévost, almost 40 years previously. Both are derived from a bourgeois family, without large fortune, whose father is in a respectable profession, but who is not a vector of wealth, but otherwise an intellectual. If the desires are the same (to embrace a profession related to banking or business), the destiny of the two young people is much different.

During the summer of 1848, then that it was age 16, Antoine Baumgartner is placed by his father in education in England with the Moilliet family, related to the Baumgartner family. Behind this harmless event, hides a particularly interesting family network, and an exciting individual trajectory, completely influenced by paternal aspirations, which we are going to highlight. It is necessary to place the various protagonists who have played a direct or indirect role in the formation of Antoine. We will thus draw a quick picture of the Baumgartner family and its Moilliet ally, before speaking in more detail to the Antoine's development.


Baumgartner treeGenealogical Diagram : Extract genealogical trees of families Moilliet and Baumgartner before 1856

The family Baumgartner

The family Baumgartner is originating in Liestal, in the Canton of Basel. Since Johannes (see genealogical table BA), it is mainly composed of physicians, profession passed from father to son. Born in Liestal, Jean (1702-1790) bought the bourgeoisie of Geneva in 1734. The first Baumgartner who was born in Geneva is the son of Jean, Jean-Louis (grand-father of the doctor). This last case the hereditary transmission of medicine within the family, in turning to the trade, and emigrated to England. This emigration is the starting point of the history of the young Antoine, but it is also rich in lessons on the model that we have established concerning the training.

 Jean (John) Baumgartner (1764-1838)Jean-Louis Baumgartner (1730-1795)

The history of Jean-Louis Baumgartner do we is known that through stories that have made the members of his family, and especially the Doctor Baumgartner. It is therefore quite possible that this story has been embellished with the time. It nevertheless remains copy.

Jean-Louis Baumgartner experienced the first part of his career in Geneva, in a house of Commerce specializing in silk. This House had enough confidence in him to send in Italy manage the affairs and organize trade. After a time spent in Italy, Jean-Louis then decided to try only his luck in England. He went to Birmingham and tried to make a place in the trade of metal parts. His case prospered. Note In this regard that his marriage with Dorothea Room, the daughter of a rich merchant of the place, there was certainly not for nothing.

Jean-Louis Baumgartner s is found in the heart of the Industrial Revolution, in a sector (trade) in full expansion, and is pointed out by his honesty. Unfortunately, a difficult period intervened, and he found himself in difficulty. It went bankrupt. Having obtained a period to repay its debts, thanks to the confidence that the bankers wore him, he then decided to engage in the company of the Indies to go to repeat a fortune in addition to sea. According to Dr Baumgartner, it is thanks to its knowledge in the trade of the silk that he found easily from the work to the company of the Indies, who sent it to the Bengal. There, he took the occasion to do so, parallel to its activities, trade for its own account. After ten years in Bengal, his fortune was sufficient to repay its creditors. He then returned to Birmingham, Paya, its debts, and created a new trade, this time helped his son John, and his son-in-law Louis Hofstetter. But he died suddenly in 1795, aged 65. It was a British citizen since 1767.

The course of Jean-Louis Baumgartner shows well how, at the XVIIIth century, we could succeed, but also losing everything quickly. The great mobility, and the force of Jean-Louis to go to seek elsewhere the fortune (Italy, England, and even in India) is characteristic. He embodied the proverb of the fortune who smiles the daring, and found himself naturally in position as an example for all the members of his family, which is visible in the pages of the memorial which have been devoted to him.
Jean-Louis Baumgartner, married and installed in England, had had two children who have made strain. His daughter married Louis Hofstetter, and Alla s Install with him in London. His son, Jean (John), who married a cousin Germaine, remained with his father. The case was therefore divided between Birmingham and London.

 Jean (John) Baumgartner (1764-1838)

When Jean-Louis Baumgartner died, his son took over the business with his brother-in-law. John had, in his childhood, never lived in Geneva, but by his wife he Garda A attaches very strong with its town of origin. It has indeed married one of his cousins Germanic, Suzanne Moilliet, outcome of an old protestant family of Geneva.

In 1795, when he took over the family business, things are complicated with the continental blockade, which ruina the trade of Baumgartner, certainly turned toward the continental Europe. But John he was not discouraged, and restarted at the bottom of the scale as a simple committed, while all its English family had retained a comfortable position. This difficult situation was not to the liking of his wife who knew how to convince him to return to Geneva, that it is finally decided to do in 1812.
Once in Geneva, he succeeds to get out financially through to two providential aid. In the first place, he was able to benefit from the assistance of the members of the family Moilliet remained in Geneva. In the second place, he was able to take advantage of the English mode, then in force in the City of Calvin, and materialized among other things by the creation, and then the success of the British Library . As well, he found a  unexpected income by giving English courses to Geneva, delighted to be able to learn the language of Shakespeare with a genuine Professor Anglophone, and even English nationality.

John had three children. The eldest of his daughters, Marianne single dies in 1823, at the age of 19 years. The second, Elisabeth, Marie with André Sayous, and has a daughter, Jeanne-Suzanne, nicknamed Lisy. This last loses his mother very young in 1832 and was collected by the eldest son of Jean, Dr. Baumgartner, his uncle. André Sayous, professor of the Academy, is the victim in 1846 of the Purge conducted by the radicals. 'Ddevoid of fortune, Pierre André Sayous is lived compelled to seek out of his homeland the means of existence as he had just lost in a manner unexpected if (...) forced to emigrate, he went to Paris'. it is because he does not want his daughter follow in this exile uncomfortable, that he entrusts to his brother-in-law.

The Dr. Antoine Baumgartner (1803-1893)

The Doctor Baumgartner was born in Birmingham, but returned home with his parents in Geneva at the age of 5 years. It is pursuing studies at the College, and then to the Academy, the audience to the Belles-Lettres then of philosophy. In 1828, he goes to Paris to perform his studies of medicine, that he completed in 1833, at thehospital of Charity . His biography of family skillfully password under silence his first marriage and the tragic destiny of the children of this Union, and mentions that his family life subsequent to 1856. We know however that it wife in first wedding Adèle Lemaire, who has not left many traces in the Public Archives. A divorce puts an end to this union, while Adèle Lemaire is interned in the asylum of the elderly, with a pension provided by the doctor Baumgartner. They had two children: Antoine and Adele. This last tragically died as a result of a disease at the age of 8 years.

The Doctor Baumgartner has always drawn to large intended for its children. Taking into unquestionably the trades of trade in high esteem, just as his grandfather Jean-Louis, he wanted his son embrassât the career of trader. In a first time, it was educated himself, Then, when his son was the age, it the Plaça among its first cousins, James and Theodore Moilliet, Birmingham.

The family Moilliet

The Moilliet family is a family came to take refuge in Geneva just after the reform, and having very rapidly acquired the bourgeoisie of this city. The Branch that we are interested in is the one that is created in 1711, by the marriage of Marie-Olympe Dassier (Pallard) with Abraham Moilliet. Their son Daniel married Marie Baumgartner, sister of Jean-Louis. The youngest daughter of Daniel Moilliet married his cousin, Jean (John) Baumgartner.

Jean-Louis Moilliet (1770-1845)

The Moilliet families and Baumgartner are linked by bonds of kinship, reinforced by the spiritual links. Of the two wires of the marriage of Daniel Moilliet and Marie Baumgartner, one is called Jean-Louis Moilliet (1770-1845), and was the godson of Jean-Louis Baumgartner, his uncle. Taking advantage of his godfather who had made a fortune in England, Jean-Louis Moilliet fit the project to enter in the navy, thanks to a place obtained by Jean-Louis Baumgartner. But things turned the short, and Jean-Louis Moilliet finally decided to make an apprenticeship at his uncle. According to the words of Dr Baumgartner, it  would have even said: 'I want to be negotiating, and I do not wish to go to Geneva that when I have made a fortune'.  A few years later, he actually fortune.

He is married to 1800 with a Lady Amélia Keir, daughter of a learned chemist, not rich but of large family and well famed [...].
His fortune grew quickly. In 1815, he made a huge speculation on French funds. She succeeds in wonder. Later, he has established an iron foundry with Mr. Bullock, which then the has kept only and is enriched. Then, it was a bank with his two sons.

Jean-Louis Moilliet had therefore carried out a part of his word. Become rich, he returned however not be install in Geneva. Its affairs were flourishing in Birmingham, and were incorporated as well by the financial affairs that by commercial affairs. However, he frequently travelled to Geneva. The family Moilliet happening in effect all of his summers in the Paquis area, in a sumptuous property: the campaign of the Empress, acquired by Jean-Louis Moilliet in 1816. It is difficult to define with precision where Jean-Louis Moilliet wished to live. It seems certain that he felt well in Geneva, his homeland of origin, but in reality, it never permanently left the England. In this regard, it can be noted that he bought four properties between Switzerland and England, and that he bequeathed to each of its two wires a property in each country.

'My uncle has left several million, houses in Birmingham, two huge areas in England, Abberley to his son James and Skilts to his son Théodore. And then in Geneva the campaign of the Empress in the first and that of Pesay the second. It has also left a lot of public funds and money in the trade. Finally, the land to build very considerable'.

Jean-Louis Moilliet, which has never been able to decide between its two homelands no doubt wished to offer to its children the possibility to live like him between two countries. Uprooted in his youth, he had not been able to choose between his homeland of origin and his homeland of adoption. He died brutally, presumably from a heart attack, during the Christmas meal 1845. Jean-Louis Moilliet has had eight children: Amelia (1802-?), John Louis (1803-1828), James (1804-1805), James (1806-1878), Suzanne (1807-?), Theodore (1810-?), Francis (1812-1812) and Albert (1817-1830).

The affairs Moilliet in Birmingham

Jean-Louis Moilliet had installed his trade case in Birmingham, a high place of the Industrial Revolution. Once became too old to manage only his business, this are its two wires survivors, James and Theodore, which resumed the torch. Jean-Louis Moilliet was immensely rich at the time of his death. The mere fact that he has been able to acquire a property as the campaign for the Empress to spend a few weeks per year is significant the immensity of this fortune. We do not know the exact nature of its business, if this is only in 1848, each of the wires Moilliet managed a part of the legacy of Jean-Louis. The commercial company of the family Moilliet was dubbed by Antoine Baumgartner the counter, of his true name Moilliet counter & Gem , of the name of a partner, co-owner of the case in 1848. In a letter, Antoine Baumgartner (son) gives the following description of the activities of the counter : 'It is almost unbelievable how many of the articles contained in this trade. (...) We sell not only articles of iron & steel, but also of the Porcelain, carpets, hides, articles of wools, the son; But the main branch in however is the Cutlery of Sheffield. It is also inconceivable what is consumed of the pen of steel. We have recently received from Germany a commission of 12'000 francs of feathers of steel'. It is impossible to know if this association  already existed at the time of Jean-Louis Moilliet, or if gem, then a simple employee, is truly entered in the case that after his death. This is James Moilliet who inherited the countertop . The Bank of the family, of his true name Moilliet & Sounds , was as to resumed by Theodore Moilliet. It is never alluded to a possible associated, which suggests that this bank was entirely in the hands of Théodore. The name of Moilliet & Sons leaves even assume that it has been created by Jean-Louis Moilliet and his sons, Theodore and James.

Antoine Baumgartner between as an apprentice at the counter in the summer of 1848 at the age of 16 years, i.e. to James Moilliet, who becomes his boss. The situation of origin is therefore both simple and complex. Antoine Baumgartner is beautiful and well placed in a company attached to a family network, but the latter, after the death of Jean-Louis Moilliet is not very strong because the ties that may have in Switzerland Théodore and James Moilliet are much lower than those maintained by their father. The coherence of this network existed as long as Jean-Louis Moilliet was alive, since it regularly went to the Paquis area and was frequently in contact with the Doctor Baumgartner. It is certain that the latter held in high esteem his grandfather Jean-Louis Baumgartner. And when the history of the family puts in front of characters as prestigious, it is logical that the aspirations brought on its children to feel. We hypothesize that this learning has been negotiated between the doctor and Jean-Louis Moilliet, during one of the stays of the latter to the campaign of the Empress. Jean-Louis Moilliet may even be at the origin of a proposal of learning. In the head of the two parents, it is quite possible that the learning of Antoine is considered as a service that could make Jean-Louis Moilliet, which had benefited in its youth to an aid of the same nature on the part of a Baumgartner. The sudden death of Jean-Louis Moilliet, does nothing to change the arrangement, except that this are now his sons, and more particularly James, who must assume the learning of Antoine.

The expectations of the Learning Abroad

We do not know much of the first years of Antoine, otherwise he was educated, at least in part, by his father. It is however a few years in Germany, between the ages of 8 and 11 years, likely placed in an educational institution located in Königsfeld. as soon adolescence, the journey of Antoine Baumgartner is a model which corresponds to many of the young adults of the XIXth century. At the beginning of the process which tends to give access to a good economic and social status, is located at Antoine Baumgartner, as in many other young people, a difficult situation, or even a crisis situation. The premature death of his younger sister, and the disease that affects certainly already his mother, imply that a huge weight is based on its only Shoulders: The Future of the filiation, which passes by a access to the fortune that his father has never known and that his grandfather had lost. Has this personal situation cumbersome, the addition of external whirlpool related to political unrest important in which the doctor is strongly committed.

During the summer of 1848, the doctor brings his young son Antoine among its cousins for its learning, confident that it can climb all the steps of the company Moilliet up to the Summit. For eight years, father and son will exchange a correspondence expanded. This last will allow us to understand the evolution of learning in the spirit of Antoine and in that of his father, who oversees to distance the life of his only son.

2.3.1. The aura of the Trader

 The trades of trade are shining, because they have made both of fortunes during the XVIIIth century, they still represent in the nineteenth century for many families the passage ideal for access to wealth. Jean-Louis Moilliet is cited as an example by the doctor with his son. Without that the letters of the doctor is present in the holdings of the archives, the many allusions that his son layer on the paper concerning this ancestor model does not leave any doubt, as shown in the following two examples, extracts from letters written to more than two years of interval: 'Your excellent letter, has done me a pleasure inexpressible, and I then flatter myself that the good hopes that you conceive of my future will not be deceived. At least, if the fate is only intended for me not to a career as bright as that of the late Mr. J.L. Moilliet, I will try by my conduct of the make honorable'.'There has certainly what encourage at work, in the description that you give me in your last letter (2 Current), the way in which our uncle Jean-Louis Moilliet fought against the difficulties of the position & of his time, & the overcame.'

The decisive element which explains the aspirations of Antoine about of the counter originates in the progeny of the brothers Moilliet. James is widowed at the beginning of the learning of Antoine, and none of its children does not seem to be interested in the trade. in second wedding, he married Lisy Sayous, niece of Dr Baumgartner, in 1853.his brother Theodore is married and the father of several children, whose four sons, a little less elderly that Antoine. Successor logical, these wires are also turning to a future different from that of their father, and it seems the 'highly unlikely that none of them gives their attention to trade.' one is entitled to wonder of such a behavior, either of the children themselves, either of the two brothers Moilliet, which do not seem to exert pressure to make these children of successors to the head of the family business. This would tend to demonstrate that the commercial sector is not the most desirable in the eyes of the Moilliet. Paradoxically, a distant cousin attempts to drill in a sector where its cousins, better placed than him to make it a career, to divert. If this phenomenon of crossing is original, the tendency of English elites to the withdrawal of their descendants has notably been explained by François Crouzet: 'Another danger for the dynasties is the withdrawal of business, in particular in Great Britain. The man of case lives in a hurly-burly tiring and long his profession lacked prestige. When a family had made a fortune, at least some of its members were tempted by the kinds of lives more pleasant, more considered, more worthy of a gentleman: landowner first, but also the liberal professions, the public service, the army and the policy.' The acquisition of land of the members of the family Moilliet is found at different levels. The example of Jean-Louis Moilliet, who has at least four major areas between England and Switzerland has already been given. His two sons also invest in the earth, but only in England, and sell the properties in Geneva. Theodore 'has built a [new] home to Skilt, where he will live'.'It has large properties in this neighborhood'. The second property Moilliet of England, including his brother James has inherited from his father, that of the 'Elms' to Abberley, also remains in the family. James Moilliet lives there with his mother, widow of Jean-Louis Moilliet. The Elms appear to be the central property of the family, where the important feasts.

The will be provided by the real property also affects the doctor Baumgartner, who did not hesitate, in April 1853, to ask Council to his cousins on the potential opportunity to purchase land adjacent to its campaign of Saint John. This request means that the doctor has all the same to a small capital, then placed in France, likely on public funds. The reluctance stems from the fact that the doctor wishes to retain a certain capital available to ensure the future of his son. This hesitation, the answer is clear: 'By sacrificing the purchase of the campaign of Sous-Terre to my future, you would lose a well present certain, in anticipation of a future benefit uncertain '. Is this the first admission of uncertainty that puts a doubt in the mind of the doctor? Always it is that the purchase of land will not be realized.

The family business of Moilliet exists only for two generations, we can therefore speak of dynasty, although all the conditions, at the outset, have been collected. The logic of the training of the sons of Theodore Moilliet is therefore simple: the trade can be profit, but it has nothing of stable. On the other hand, the family is sitting on a comfortable fortune, that it would be superfluous to increase. These two conditions are sufficient therefore to explain the lack of interest in the next generation to the resumption of family affairs. The commercial occupations do not containing that little of prestige, Theodore Moilliet orients its children toward careers better considered. 'Will be ministers, soldiers & of physicians or perhaps also men of law, but point of traders'. All occupations that quote Antoine have a prestigious character. The most paradoxical is certainly there find the medicine, since the Doctor Baumgartner is himself a doctor, but that his son broken the transmission subsidiary of this profession to become trader. The crossing of interest of two generations is only motivated by issues of economic order, because to the difference of the brothers Moilliet, Dr. Baumgartner has not of fortune. It is accessing an important capital that in 1856, after the sale of a part of its domain of Saint John to the company of the railway. To realize on his son its aspirations of fortune, it was necessary that Antoine embrassât a commercial occupation. His grandfather had done, he had, or could do so.

But the situations of the two Baumgartner, in more than a century of gap, are radically different. The increase in competition has decreased the possibilities of speculation, as explained Antoine in one of his letters. This competition, unknown to the XVIIIth century, complicates the business. Antoine pointed out to his father that Jean-Louis, although merchant during an unstable political situation, had almost a monopoly, then that now Competition dictates a any other Act. Ow, it is [the] competition one of the major obstacles to the expansion of our trade. Then [at the time of Jean-Louis Moilliet], there may be two or three houses providing the Italy, there the account today by the dozens.' This gloom of business does not contribute to attract the future generation of Moilliet in the family business.

The need to build a business network

Has the opportunity that offers the vacuum of succession in family enterprises of Moilliet, adds the interest for Antoine to make its learning abroad, in an establishment, located in the heart of the economic power of the time, and where virtually he can weave many links to business, to the image of the two Jean-Louis. But this process of the formation of a network of business own, can only be realized if Antoine remains committed to the Moilliet, which it expects of introductions from honorable people, all of which are potential targets, sometimes subject to disappointments.

'For the moment I do not know of people distinguished that our cousins, & educated people that one or two of their friends, that it has happened to me to see in their houses. The latter are of knowledge casuelles, & Little report.' 'How Mr. Jean-Louis Moilliet has he done? Our cousin told me. It is point of everything associated with the family of Birmingham. He has had a connection of business with the family Galton, & does is almost point involved in other company than it was in this House. It is as well that it has trained its relations of friends & of marriage. It is that it has made knowledge with Mr. Keir.

The expectations brought on parents Moilliet therefore are of several kinds. If the only part of pure training for trades of trade is simple to put in place, in agreement with the family home, there is nothing of the expectations which concern the introduction of Antoine in a network of relationships. It is impossible for the Doctor Baumgartner to make such a request to its English parents, by the simple game of decency. The insistence with which the doctor is asking for news of relations that his son is done in England demonstrates that a real concern of this nature exists. there lies the whole difficulty of the present situation, contrary to what may exist in other families where the links are more narrow. More than one parent is close, more his interest for the Apprentice which is entrusted to him is large.

The consolidation of family links

To ensure that the expectations of the Doctor Baumgartner are filled in success, the latter maintains the good family relationships by inviting regularly its English parents to spend some time in Saint John. On the occasion of a trip to Switzerland with the young Antoine, James Moilliet will negotiate with the Doctor Baumgartner a stay in Saint John for his two young girls, from his first marriage.

'The arrangement that Mr. Moilliet has done with thee to have its girls to Saint John, the air to please them much to all. In effect, this must be much more pleasant for these young damsels, find among two close relatives, who are fond, take interest in their well-being, & will do everything that it is possible to do to make them happy and comfortable, rather than go to install only with a nanny for which they do not seem to have a condition very special in a place where they would be completely foreign & isolated, as Fontainebleau. Moreover, our cousin and his daughters are delighted to Saint John, and its inhabitants. Because they recognize all that thou hast done to make the stay pleasant & Mr. Moilliet has (i'm sure) more genuine affection for you as for any other of its parents, my good Grand-maman inspires their a love mingled with respect, & the good and soft Lisy pleases them very much.’

James Moilliet wished to place its girls in earth francophone. Until then, they were to pension at Wiesbaden. One can easily imagine that he then spoke to the doctor during his own stay, and that the latter has kindly offered his house, what it was doing on many occasions.

This exchange of good practices seems to be extremely important for Antoine, as shown in the following passage: 'I hope that the air of Saint John and the parties of walks (not too long) that thou shalt make them do, & the exercise that they will be able to have, will benefit them. I would not like to see them pale Thin & leaving Saint John, as when we went to find in Wiesbaden'. Then, in January 1852, Antoine indicates that 'Monsieur Moilliet, I believe, will return its girls toward the end of next month without stay longer beyond the channel. They speak a lot in their letters of the happiness they enjoy at Saint John, which I am very pleased.' The stay of girls Moilliet will therefore lasted approximately 5 months, between September 1851 and February 1852.

The invitations of Doctor Baumgartner also affect people outside the family, but associated with the counter , as Mr. Gem, to which the doctor proposes its roof. This proposal is however refused.

The reality of the learning

 The delegation of authority to the family network

The learning of Antoine leaves appear a real delegation of authority to a father too remote to coach his son, on cousins, in which this father puts all its confidence, without losing sight of the behavior of his son. This is the main difficulty of this kind of training. The Target Family inherits a real responsibility on the young man, which nevertheless continues to be dependent on the paternal straitjacket, or even that feeds it. The triangular relationship is fuzzy and likely varies greatly depending on the case. The information between the doctor and his cousins Moilliet usually goes by Antoine through the letters exchanged monthly, except rare case where a letter is directly addressed to James or Theodore Moilliet. on the other hand, the Moilliet often communicate with the doctor by the intermediary of Antoine.

The distance makes the learning uncontrollable by the father of the family. The Family Network acts as well as training officer at two levels, both from the point of view of the professional learning, that from the point of view of the uses. This last point is not to neglect, since the distance makes it impossible a direct intervention of the parents. These must especially delegate this learning.

Thou Cast thy hope that I learned the use of the world, the ease of Ways & the decent language. Without doubt, as you say with reason, I had in our cousins of the perfect models to imitate, & you can believe that when I find myself in their company, I task to take advantage of it. But, alas, how to learn the ease of Ways & the use of the world, buried in a hardware store, where we can learn nothing good in fact of ways, & nothing at all of the use of the world?

During the entire period of his learning, Antoine is quite aware of the importance of the Family Network for his career: ' [...] I am sure that by the family Moilliet, I will find everything, everything which may fill thy vows, everything that can make my happiness'. He also knows that a good marriage can him open the doors of a situation almost impossible to acquire alone. He knows that the counter , and a fortiori the family network, constitutes a unique opportunity for his career: 'Mes expectations are all laid down on our cousin. What it will do, will impact powerfully on me'.

The Training School, unlike the social education, remains under an absolute control of the father of the family. During all his learning, Antoine is closely and continually linked to his father, to which he regularly gives news of the advanced search of its training. His father, Geneva, tells him his orders also on the nature of knowledge to acquire. You Me Requests what are in detail my occupations. I hope to satisfy in te tracing how happens a day of work. I get up in the morning to 51/2 hours. As soon as I am dressed and that I have done my prayers, I book to some of my studies. A 8 hours, I have lunch and I will then go to the counter where I rest up to 11/2 hour, which is the dinner hour. After this I rest up to 61/2 hours, and all the rest of the evening is employee to the study. As well are the six days of the week. On Sunday, I will twice in the church with the family home which I remains. The rest of the time I am in my house and I read or I'll walk me.

The materials subject to the study are also the cause of exchanges of view between father and son. In Geneva, the Doctor caters his son in books and reading tips. The Algebra seems to have the preference of Antoine which will take special courses.The dual training of the young apprentice, social and school is the subject of a close supervision which is exercised at a distance. This monitoring also relies on the family networks. The Doctor Baumgartner obtains information on the behavior of his son through the Passing Friends in England, and who have had the opportunity to go to Birmingham, certainly for any other reason. Several eyewitness accounts indicate that the England and its industrial regions are the preferred destinations throughout the nineteenth century for anyone who wants to observe the progress in direct. "I was in Manchester see a manufacture of machines. I have seen melt the iron, which is very curious". Antoine itself will make service to the people of Geneva of passage by making them visit of Industries of Birmingham. This is for example the case of Mr. Sayous, father of Lisy, which, for passage to London, made a quick hook of a half-day to see the mills. He does not even have the time to go to visit its first cousins by Alliance. The latter are also regularly visit the high places of industrialization to foreigners of passage. James takes Moilliet for example a young Vernet see iron mines, before that Antoine do shows him 'The manufactures the most interesting from this city'.

But these visitors can also do their report with the doctor regarding the conduct of Antoine. This approach seems to be natural. It is part of a set of social practices which weigh on a young a constant pressure of the environment that surrounds it. In many of the letters, Antoine must be justified of things reported to his father by a third person. These stakeholders have probably had no specific missions data by the father, but they are for the Doctor of Invaluable witnesses to make account specifically of a reality that no letter cannot ensure. As well, clothing, recreation, and other elements of daily life are passed to the cleaning shoe: 'I will try to make my benefit of comments that Mr. Sayous has made on me' no facts and gestures of Antoine does not seem to be spared, up to his writing, which is severely criticized by his father.

The financial support

At the heart of an approach that tends to put into the hands of a young man the keys to the economic success, the indispensable financial support of the family cannot be obscured. Yet no information allows to know if a remuneration of the apprentice was planned before the commencement of the apprenticeship. In the first letters, this question does not appear simply not, Antoine simply indicating that his father assumes his pension. This is only in December of the same year that Antoine said having to wait a number of years before it [him] pays his work'.

The arrival of the first wage, the amount of which is undetermined, occurs suddenly and in an indirect way in October 1850. However, this wage does not yet to Antoine to be totally financially independent of his father, since the payments of the doctor continue and that the 15 June 1851, a first announcement of salary increase allows you to know the amount, or £50 per year. Now, the doctor no longer assumes that a part of the housing, leaving his son financially afford the other expenditures. This amount seems to be modest, since it is still increased in May 1852 to 60£ per year. 'This arrangement of wages, which you dislike, does not satisfy me too not more. As you say well, £5 per month, are not sufficient, in the case where I would have to depend entirely on my salary. Because I am the account of my needs as well: housing, food, etc, 60£; clothing and any extra £30; by year 90£'. The doctor has certainly made state several times in his dissatisfaction with this remuneration, since Antoine justifies the choice of its patrons in the following letter: 'Monsieur Moilliet is being informed of Mr.Gem what he thought should be my salary this year, the generous Mr. Gem has decided that I would receive 60£ & that it was much more  than I do not deserved. I receive therefore 60£, & AM of the book as those who receive 70, £100 or more'. Finally, at the beginning of the following year, the salary of Antoine is increased to 75£ per year, which represents the last increase.

Disappointed hopes at the counter

Unfortunately during the learning, the future of the young Baumgartner seems to be close to the side of the family Moilliet. The wage question allows you a glimpse of the difficulties that lie, caused mainly by the Associates of James Moilliet. Theodore, which is not part of Moilliet & GEM, is not interested in the future of its parent. 'With respect to Mr. Théodore Moilliet, it has not the slightest objection to what I succeed, but this would be too much trouble for him to help me or encourage me'. if James seems more close to Antoine, and more concerned about its future, it is necessary to also keep account of its associates, with which it does not seem to have family links.

It is significant to note that the undertaking to the origin of the fortune of Jean-Louis Moilliet, hardware, is found between the hands of his youngest son James, while the elder conducts the Bank Moilliet & Sounds , the two seemingly being owners of at least a part of each entity. This allocation gives greater importance to the bank that in the case of hardware. This last, Less profitable because of the many competitors whose spoke Antoine, is developed with this associate the name of Gem. This last, foreign families Baumgartner and Moilliet can only act as disruptive element. It has no interest, and without doubt no desire, to see a young foreigner drill within the company that he co-directs. Yet, Antoine N between apparently not in conflict with a Close of Gem, since the latter is recently married, and that it is never question in all the correspondence of a possible stumbling block of this nature. But Antoine GEM describes as a man very attached to his company, 'the air of the counter appears to be necessary for him to breathe freely, even at the edge of the lakes of Cumberland [where he spends his wedding journey]'.

The Association of Moilliet with third persons, Mr. Gem but also a Mr. Hoerner, can only be explained by a lack of interest in James and Theodore toward a company that requires a lot of activities for a poor performance. 'Mespite all the art that they have acquired, these people can not raise the natural difficulties which are located between them & their independence of their superiors opulent. They do not have the funds, Mr Gem has not the force, Mr. Hoerner is too old, for again for their own account. The case of the latter, is to find a place at the tail of Moilliet & Gem , & not to move, & to exclude any intruder, such as me by example'.

Over the letters, the impasse in which Antoine is committed appears clearly. In the first place, the young Baumgartner does not progress sufficiently in the company. At least not quickly enough to his eyes. In the second place, this last seems in difficulty, a consequence of the strong competition that exists on its market. In the middle of the XIXth century, the advance taken by the England shrinks and the competition begins to be felt. Antoine said that the margins fall for industries, who are in the obligation to lie to their customers. its judgment concerning the Counter Moilliet Gem & Cie is clear: 'The case is not good, people are not good'. The brothers Moilliet evoke the possibility to leave the counter in the spring of 1853. This decision would be fraught with consequences for Antoine, because without the brothers Moilliet, his chance of Ascension to counter is zero, and himself does not feel ready: 'I am extremely far to have a knowledge of our trade sufficient to Dare to undertake before long business for my account, although still less if your capital, your Reserve came to be involved'.

The brothers Moilliet and Mr. Gem then entrust to Antoine a work that must be carried out in Brussels for the account of the counter. Antoine there makes it for a few weeks at the end of the month of June 1853.The work is very simple and relates to goods deposited with a client and that the company wants to recover. Apparently, there was for Antoine that a work in the inventory. The perfect way in which he will fulfill this task will give rise to an ambitious project.

The Australian draft

As a result of the difficulties that meeting the counter , and to the observations made by Antoine in Brussels, a simple project will be born in the spirit of Mr. Gem: Send Antoine Baumgartner in Australia by entrusting him with the goods recovered thanks to his work in Brussels, has load for him to sell on the spot and inform the counter of the needs of the colony. Antoine would travel with another young man by the name of short, who knows the Australia and Mr. Gem.

This project of trade with Australia, in which Antoine would have a central role, will federate the energies of the various players around him. The brothers Moilliet would find with this project an exit door suitable to the learning of Antoine. Mr. Gem would see the young Baumgartner exit the Counter, and his business benefit from an additional market, without a big risk because the goods removed from Belgium were considered as lost. The Doctor Baumgartner certainly must be convinced of the merits of the project, but there is no reason for that it refuses. The project seems without risks, otherwise those inherent to the long journey, and the approach looks curiously to that company by Jean-Louis Baumgartner, which was committed in the company of the Indies to cover its debts. The doctor may not serenely not erect in example A grandfather and at the same time condemn the same approach that his own son wants to undertake. The latter also cannot only be seduced by the responsibility that is given to him, and by the taking of independence that this project involves vis-a-vis Mr. Gem.

Addressed on 21 September 1853 of Birmingham, the application finds a favorable echo very quickly, since the doctor gives his agreement in a message dated September 25. This very short time means even a certain enthusiasm of the father of Antoine, without doubt too pleased to learn that his son will no longer be directly dependent on the counter. This desire motivates the doctor to propose that Antoine also takes Swiss goods. From this moment, the project mentioned in the origin by Mr Gem will little by little to transform. It will take from the magnitude has two levels: goods shipped will have several origins, other than the counter. In addition, several people are going to 'enter in this enterprise' for a small sum of money. These two changes are important, because they are weigh on Antoine a pressure that did not exist with the unique goods of Brussels.

Emigration and national identity

'I say emigration because this is nothing less. If I am successful there, it is clear that I intend to determine to continue. If I am not successful there not, where succeed-I, & what good look even other hand the success & the fortune which I flee in this country of discoveries and business?'

The scheduled departure of the Antoine for Australia raises the question of the link between the training process that is held abroad and the strength of the feeling of national identity which the live. The history of his family is punctuated by emigration, who had each time a definitive character. The letter concerning the possible expansion of the property of Saint John is the only time where the doctor Baumgartner seems interested in the sense of national identity of his son, who began his apprenticeship at the age of 16 years. The response of the latter is without ambiguity: 'It would be absurd to me to claim m be attached to Geneva in 4 years on 20. I am committed to by thee & by my grand-mother. Has this closely, I do not want more than to Koenigsfeld or Vandoeuvres (...) This being, I declare myself patriot, but English patriot by preference'. accident of the calendar, Antoine had expressed the wish, exactly three years before, that in the event of the death of his grandmother, his father will abandon 'one country, which although perhaps the most beautiful in the world, is governed & lived in good part by rascals' to settle permanently in England.

The evocation of this possibility is not surprising. Following its political positions, Dr. Baumgartner is a target of the Radicals after 1847. On 12 November 1849, while he travels to Saint-Pierre to vote, it is taken violently to party by the crowd. really in danger, it must not his salvation to the providential intervention of Balthasar Decrey, yet the Councillor of State radical, helped the troupe. Its clothes put in tatters, it must take refuge several hours in the prison which is adjacent to the cathedral to escape the lynching. As a result of this unfortunate episode, its consideration toward its homeland is seriously undermined. In fact, its old mother and the property of Saint John that he has unified painfully are two arguments of weight for the Decide to stay in Switzerland. This position does not preclude to perform steps to do recognize a English nationality, on the basis of that of his father. This attempt is however a failure.

The tour of the manufacturers

The doctor will be involved in the project in a comprehensive manner. It appears clearly that the idea of boarding Swiss goods did not please the people of the counter that attempt to discourage Antoine: 'It is said that the Swiss watches are not suitable for Australia, that they do not stand up well to the climate.' these disappointments do not come from James Moilliet, which takes itself contact with Geneva watchmakers, and cannot therefore be that of Mr. Gem.

'It would appear that several of your friends have wanted to propose to put each £100 in a first shipment. Moilliet and Gem consent to enter in this business for the same sum'. Fort of this support of various 'loggers', Antoine travels in Switzerland between the end of the month of October and November 1853 to organize his trip with his father and take contact with Swiss manufacturers. What Antoine negotiates is a discount of samples free of charge, against promise to establish a stable trade if opportunities are real. In fact, among the companies contacted, many are not ready to perform this discount free of charge of samples. The watchmakers of the Joux Valley are 'unable to bear the discovered (...) that requires a consignment'. among manufacturers of Basel ribbons, 'Nobody wants to record'. only, the watchmakers of the Chaux-de-Fonds, Schneider & Cie , Perret-Gentil & Cie , as well as two watchmakers Genevois, Meyer and Boissonnas, fall in the case under planned.
The Doctor Baumgartner is still negotiating on its side with manufacturers of cheese, which entrust him with of grinding wheels of Gruyère. The table below summarizes the contacts some that Antoine has taken, as well as the results obtained.

Tabl. 12.1. : List of the firms involved in the Australian draft


The products





Baumann & Cie

Woven fabrics, curtains

St. Gallen


2 caisses

To Pay

Boissonnas & Cie






Charles Moss & Cie






Chartier Mory & Cie






Doerrer & Cie





To Pay

Ducommun & Cie





To Pay

Forget & Cie






G. & E. Alther & Cie





To Pay

Grossmann & Cie

Parquet floors, bungalows



3 Samples


Hentsch & Cie Chauvet






J. F. Sarasin & Cie






Marion & Cie






Meyer & Cie






Mistaz & Cie




5 caisses

To Pay

Moilliet and Cie Gem




14 packages

Free of charge

Ormond Perret & Cie




The samples

To Pay

Perret-Gentil & Cie






Preiswerk & Son






S. A. van Es & Cie






Schneider & Cie






Spühler & Cie




20 boxes


T. Smith & Cie

The lamps



The samples


Elaborated from AFB, letters of Antoine Baumgartner (son) to his father, 108 letters, 1848-1856, various dates.
Compared to the initial project, the changes are important. Swiss goods are the majority, and those of the counter Moilliet Gem & Cie do represent almost nothing more.The pressure of the doctor on the articles to take is obvious. Outside of the caisses of cheeses, the Doctor has also proposed to his son to take with him Swiss chalets, without the consent of the latter. 'Point of Swiss chalets for Australia, if it please thee, but good &  simple houses without this appellation Baroque'. All goods are grouped in London before being shipped to Australia. Antoine n prevails with him on the same boat 'that' the samples, watchmaking, jewelry, tissues, [boxes to] music, two boxes of cheeses (one of each quality) and not something else. The rest will follow'.

The desire to succeed stronger than the reason

The enthusiasm of Antoine and his father are to be put in parallel with several clear signals and concordant, which show that the project is very difficult to achieve in a colony which stifles under the imports. Even if Father and son have such signals, none alarm, demonstrating Sometimes a blinding obvious.

'I have sought with care all the news that one receives from Australia: they are not very satisfactory. Of frantic speculators & injudicieux have shipped blow to blow cargoes of British goods of any kind, of provisions of wheat, where follows that the markets of this colony are 'glutted', that is to say are filled. Several thousands of barrels of wheat will return, almost all articles of English industry are buying to ruinous prices for those who sell. All this is quite bad, but the ruinous speculators will learn, or rather must already have learned not to make these crazy shipments, & as soon as the Australian markets will be désemplis, & will have been reduced to a reasonable level (which operates all days quickly), traders will have careful here a field that exists perhaps no other hand, do a extended traffic lucrative and sustainable'.

On the eve of from, Antoine writing once again to his father that 'the new to Australia are not shiny'. has again, this information is not taken into consideration. In fact, father and son have in mind that the family models Jean-Louis Baumgartner and Jean-Louis Moilliet, with the difference that Antoine has upstream, of a father who the help financially.

The failure to death

On place however, its attempt is running short. Australia is full of products of the metropolis and the prices are the lowest. Many of the traders have had the same idea that Antoine. Of no more Swiss product is requested by consumers turned exclusively toward the English products. Antoine tries to get out despite the difficulties, not taking to return on a failure. But his father realizes that the case turns in fiasco. His attitude is ambiguous. It calls for the return of his son, while suggesting him other solutions, such as attempting to sell its products in Sydney. after one year spent in vain to sell its products in Melbourne, Antoine tries his luck to gold mines. This decision causes for his father to a violent reaction, because it does not support to know that his son intended in the trading is demeans the trades of the mine.

On his return to Melbourne, Antoine is under the shock of the admonition of his father. He writes in the space of a little more than three weeks five letters, explaining in detail its situation. 'I must tell you that your letters encourage me little to return to Europe. Instead of give me confidence, they frighten me of threats'. July 3, 1855, Antoine closes the discussion of his return: 'I resolved to remain for some time yet in this country. It is impossible that I returned to Europe to see all the faces unpleasant that will arise on all sides'. it no longer writes a letter to his father until 31 December 1855. The message has not changed: 'You'll understand easily that I cannot and I do  not want to go in Europe & meet all these faces glossy, all these bouderies, all these criticisms, all these mockery which I would receive everywhere, in England & Switzerland'.

A few weeks later, in March 1856, Antoine Baumgartner gives itself the death in a public park of Melbourne. The last letter written by his father on 23 February 1856 is returned to the sender. In this mail, the Doctor Baumgartner announced to his son that the sale of a portion of its lands to the company of the railway from Lyon-Genève had enabled him to pocket a comfortable sum of 140'000 francs, ensuring its future.

The weight of the Vocation

In the dramatic history of Antoine Baumgartner, the bar was placed very high by a father anxious to see his son succeed immediately. He firmly believed that the recipe of the fortune to the XIXth century was the same as that of the time spent, thus condemning his son to a success difficult. The Family Network was to allow the young apprentice to access a future of trader. Based on a service rendered by his grand-father to Jean-Louis Moilliet, Dr. Baumgartner has spent an arrangement with the latter. But the family network was not strong enough. The Doctor Baumgartner gave life to this network by pressing his son to succeed. Jean-Louis Moilliet disappeared, James and Theodore have not, in the eyes of the doctor, not granted the necessary attention to Antoine. The expected warranty of the family network has not worked because the two parties are not sufficiently heard. Therefore, Antoine is found sentenced to a failure.

Convinced that its wealth was beyond the seas, he then tried his luck, as had been done with success the models of his father: Jean-Louis Moilliet and Jean-Louis Baumgartner. A failure, then the suicide of Antoine in Australia have shattered the dreams of the doctor. As of this moment, any contact with the family Moilliet of England has been broken. The companies of James and Theodore Moilliet have experienced varying fortunes. The counter has closed a few years later, perhaps by lack of successor, but especially because of the evolution of the market. The bank, for it, 'has been a great success and is melted to 1860 in a large provincial bank called Lloyd'.

In the eyes of the doctor, it would have sufficed that James and Theodore Moilliet come in the same logic as that of Baumgartner for the events to follow their course. But, according to him, they did not. Mesmerized by the success of his son, the Doctor has Paré His cousins of all its evils. Yet, the study of the correspondence that he maintains with James Moilliet between 1853 and 1856 obliges us to take a step back by report to this position. In this correspondence, James Moilliet does not cease to encourage the doctor to do not put too much pressure on his son, 'this excellent and meritorious young man, my more warm friend'.

However, several elements raise questions and show that James and Theodore do not seem to never really close to Antoine. The example that we will give to illustrate this concerns the housing of Antoine, outside the family Moilliet. If indeed the Moilliet were entered in a family dynamic, they would have logically supported the hosting of Antoine. But they did not. Anecdote more revealing yet, when Antoine came into conflict with its first lodgers at the point to find themselves almost to the street, the solution to go, temporarily, stay at James Moilliet appeared only very late in the day, as the ultimate and provisional measure.

It has not missed a lot for that the ascension of families Baumgartner and Moilliet as early as the end of the XVIIIth century, from the successes of Jean-Louis Moilliet and Jean-Louis Baumgartner, gives birth to a dynasty. Many of the explanatory factors were even together: religion, of course, but also several family ties which mesh the two families through the generations. In accordance with what Michel Hau has described, the ascension of these two persons was not the result of a family strategy, but well of this 'favorable environment' to which it refers. It is subsequently that things have changed. The Doctor Baumgartner wanted his son to fortune. He has tried to meet all the conditions to facilitate access to it. But it has not been followed by its parents of England, without doubt more heirs of a family fortune that the creators of this fortune.

In the model that we have established, the family network represents the keystone of the training process. It allows both the young apprentice to acquire a vocational training in another country, but still benefit from a favorable environment which acts as security element, for both the apprentice, but again for his family, who certainly would hesitate to leave toward the unknown a young inexperienced. Finally, the motivation of this training abroad finds its roots in the crisis situation described previously.

The history of Antoine Baumgartner still shows that there is a net difference between a generalist training and the entry into a career. This could be akin to a secondary formation was not uniform, but divided into two between a generalist learning and a learning career, the pivotal moment being constituted of the choice of the career. The first period of learning general practitioner was a simple extension of the training process already initiated during the period primary. Although the sector of activity has been fixed (trade, for example), the specific career was not defined, and the fields of learning and education was still general. What we call fields of studies are of the knowledge that each apprentice decided to acquire by itself, often following the advice of either the father or of the persons responsible for his learning. These studies dealt with disciplines very heterogeneous, ranging from piano to mathematics. In each case, the choice of these disciplines was carried out in a different way, but all met naturally to a lack of know certain that it seemed indispensable to fill. Among the studies that Alexandre-Louis Prévost decided to undertake during his stay abroad, are located the history, geography, and the political economy. In this regard, it can be noted that Antoine Baumgartner had chosen the algebra, Latin and the geometry. This last program of study changes somewhat during the years that dura the learning of Antoine Baumgartner. But never, political economy was not for Antoine a science which has mobilized its interest. Certainly, the algebra is a recent discipline for the middle of the XIXth century, but this program leaves nevertheless appear that Antoine Baumgartner had a delay in school. The latin would have had to be acquired before its learning, and the geometry seems well isolated among the disciplines necessary to trade.

In these decisions specific to each individual, the weight of the Father, important but not exclusive, confirms the idea of a vocation that it must follow. Certainly, the parents, in each case, influence the choices made, but each apprentice has, again, a space of freedom that it develops according to his tastes. As well, Antoine Baumgartner must regularly be justified the choice it has made, and follows in a few cases the 'advice' pressing of his father, who provides to distance the books required for studies that he intends to see accomplished by his son. As long as lasted these lessons outside of the professional activity, lasted the learning generalist.

Then comes the vocation, and learning takes obviously a different heading. The inflection point is particularly visible in the case of the young Antoine Baumgartner. In the first place, it has set the hopes on its English family. Hopes to one day succeed to his parents, since children Moilliet are turning to other professions. But these hopes are present only in the spirit of the Baumgartner, and have not been the subject of a discussion with the brothers Moilliet. When Antoine Baumgartner sets its career, it launched its project of trade with Australia, and has finally turned its activity toward this objective. Therefore, the limit between the learning of career and the actual activity independent is difficult to mark.

A political revolution can occur without having to consequences a disruption of a social behavior. The faculty to modify social standards, dictated by the religious roots, may only be made by the time, on the long term. The professional vocation is strongly anchored in the mentalities. In the course of the XIXth century, the question of the choice of the profession for a young person from a family of the Elite becomes more delicate. The bourgeois society, by the disappearance of its statute, is fragile. In addition, the economic issue has changed during the course of the century for the families of the elites. Some have done or redone fortune, while others are still without fortune. The pressure on these latest is different of the first case of the figure. In effect, and Antoine Baumgartner is the example, these families are trying to compensate for the loss of status bourgeois by the acquisition of another attribute the maintaining in their place as a member of the Elite:

The Fortune.

In the case of families formerly bourgeois and fortunate, in the middle of the century, the situation and the issues are different. The banking alliances summed the growing importance of business have increased the pressure made on the potential successors. At the beginning of the century, after the French occupation and the loss of fortunes in the revolutions, the issue is much less important that after 1850, when the private banks are held tightly of industrial affairs Important.

Social habits and religious beliefs evolve very slowly. It is possible to note that the end of the bourgeois status has not put an end to the professional vocation. Always present, this call has been subject to the tensions between generations. Latin Pictet, son of the banker Ernest Pictet Fuzier-Cayla ally, chemist and unruly student wrote his memoirs that reveal this phenomenon. The passage below is located elsewhere under a title without ambiguity: 'vocation'. The pressure of the bank, a family company which has made the fortune of the family, is much more pressing than in the case of Prévost, a family without a company to transmit.

I was not at the time where I arrived [End of Secondary Studies], without having since long thought to my future profession, but I have not yet talked to my parents and they do me the have not requested. They are well aware that my tastes, and my abilities, me would be to science and they have renounced to me to deliver to one of the traditional activities of the family (at least of my paternal family), that is to say the policy or the bank. Never my father spoke to me of its business, and I regretted. Perhaps it had I stated unequivocally that I had even a certain reluctance for the occupation that he exercised. Fortunately, I was not only Son, in which case I would have had to enter the house. I would have shown the most despicable banker that could imagine. My brother Guillaume himself, who, by duty, DUT take my place, did that with regret, because it also has scientific skills.

Also when, on 28 June 1875, my father took me to hand and asked me what career I intended to follow, I said: 'a year ago, I would have said to you: medicine, but since then, I have thought about; I saw that there are many other sciences to advance and I want to know. I therefore ask you to allow me to follow at the University All courses in the sciences, and I decide when I am bachelor es Sciences.' has what he said: 'It is very well my son'.

Guillaume Pictet, of which he is above question, is in reality the second son of a sibling group of five boys. He has three years of gap with OGDS. As well, when Ernest Pictet 'took to part' America to be fixed on its future, his second son was 15 years ago, an age located between the end of the studies that we have considered as primary '' and the entry into learning. An ideal age, for that his father directs it to a specific training, in view of the resumption of the family business. Although things have apparently been clear on the side of America, his father has probably waited to have a successor to permanently fix the future of its elder, and let follow a vocation contrary to its views, so remote from the world of business. In these conditions, the most interesting is naturally the use of this term of 'vocation', which implies that this call is, in the case of a family business sitting on a good foundation, subordinate to the requirements of the survival of this company. In fact, this example shows perfectly a double movement, of need for the company on the one hand, and individual vocation that it must discover and follow on the other hand. The younger brother of Latin, Arnold Pictet has also left a interesting testimony, since putting in stage the same situation, and the same players.

'I was then based of power of the Maison Ernest Pictet & Cie, but I could no longer carry out of front my entomological research and a profession of banker, these two activities m bringing it to live a double life, become an impossible burden to continue. (...) Anyhow, it left me from without any mark of sympathy which is usually manifested at the start of a loyal employee, to more strong reason which had to occur in respect of a son and a brother, while I received the approval of all the members of my family who did not belong to the world of business. It was me who on the contrary, took the initiative of a modest manifestation of farewells, which has been organized at the castle banquet. "

Arnold Pictet, last son of Ernest, has worked 15 years within the paternal bank before taking this decision. The coldness with which the members of his family integrated in the banking world have welcomed this new demonstrates that there is a gene and that the decision of Arnold is going against the will paternal, which however can only comply with the choice of his son. Ernest Pictet was for the second half of the XIXth century, a unquestionable leader within the private bankers. Its bank control of important cases, as well in the sector of technical networks in that the real estate. Its establishment was absolutely to be continued, and the pressure exerted on the children has been enormous.

For as much, the professional vocations of children of Ernest Pictet have also been able to give a few pulses to the family bank, as this may be the case with Lucien (1864-1928). Very early oriented toward a technical career engineer, This last founded in 1895 the Society Piccard-Pictet & Cie , known for having produced approximately 3'000 automobiles nicknamed 'Pic-Pic'. The proximity of this society with a banking establishment is valuable for the capital that this institution can represent.


(to this section of the thesis - ed)

The tragic fate of Antoine Baumgartner fits in a period where the training of the ELITE remains unchanged, while the entire school system changes. In the middle of the century, the trades of trade and of the Bank always attract candidates eager to fortune, to the image of Antoine Baumgartner. If the latter is actually of bourgeois origin, it may not however be press no family establishment near. It is more akin to the member of the new elite who are trying to drill in an environment where their relatives are distant.

To access the professional activities he covets, Antoine Baumgartner follows perfectly the model which has been established in the Chapter 5, placing in point of culmination the learning in a house of trade. However, this experience is proving to be a cooking failure and his career of banker ends tragically in Australia. This dramatic story highlights the peculiarities of the bourgeois training.

It is not easy for a person external to the family poles for business or private banks in Geneva, to force the door in financial circles. Antoine Baumgartner is not reached, and if its correspondence frequently puts the emphasis on the greatness of the England, it is without doubt that he sees in this country the only alternative to his impossible success in the Geneva institutions. The attractiveness of bank trades appears there blatant, as if they were the unique opportunity to make a fortune, even if for this you need to cross the world.

The tragic history of Antoine Baumgartner, put in perspective by the difficulty that had Ernest Pictet to find among its many son a successor, shows how the microcosm of the old bourgeois families is partitioned, albeit still as dynamic in the second half of the XIXth century. The developments of public instruction, which transform the Genevan school as early as 1848, have no influence on these elites who are perfectly able to completely detach from the Academy, once yet pillars of the Protestant Rome. At most, these families are concerned-they defend the private schools to which they entrust their children.

The continuity of alliances to ensure the future career of Antoine Baumgartner

The question of the marriage must be observed after 1846 under the angle of the families who aspire to a position of fortune for their children. Aware of the need to move a Union which can help the achievement of a brilliant career, these families, which may be of origin Bourgeois, pursue the dream of a economic ascent. Within the Baumgartner, the problem of marriage intervenes in two different ways in the process of formation of the young Antoine, placed in an apprenticeship in England. Father and Son exchange at a distance of points of view on marriage hoped to Antoine, which appears as the necessary step to his career expected of trader. But the question of marriage also intervenes to exogenously on learning, since a renchaînement of alliances is performed between the families Baumgartner and Moilliet during the stay of Antoine among its cousins.
During his apprenticeship, Antoine is aware of the importance of achieving a good marriage, if it wishes to acquire an honorable place in the middle of the large trading he covets. Make a learning in a good company, i.e. integrated in an extended business network and stable is not enough; it must be at least make possible extensions. This awareness does not appear in the correspondence that late in 1853, almost five years after the beginning of his training in England. At this time, the apprentice is 21 years of age, a young age that would explain that it is not interested in the marriage before. A simple legal point of view, the risk to the doctor Baumgartner to see his son to marry against his will only exists from the moment where this Son has the freedom to do so without having to obtain compulsory consent of its parents. When Antoine Approach This key Age, his father inquired of its predisposition. It is as much to prevent a marriage of love that of driller the son on the importance and the consequences of the marriage.'Si i was on track to make a suitable marriage, this marriage dependent on my advancement in position, which progress does would be not in the absence of Mr. Moilliet, marriage would necessarily.'

On the marriage market that it aims, Antoine Baumgartner is clearly in a position of applicant. It has not fortune and a close family restricted. In addition, his parents not Moilliet seem to him not close enough for the fully integrate their business networks. Even if its future is partly conditioned by a judicious marriage, the latter can only be achieved with a counterparty. That can only be financial, the contribution of Antoine may only relate to a professional merit, obtained by an advancement in the company where he performs his learning. The accession to this merit necessarily passes through the Family Moilliet, until its ambitions to be amended following the change induced by the Australian draft. The long trip planned to Antoine, who holds a clear discourse on the aspect of final potentially of his emigration, raises a different way the question of marriage. Finished the concerns around possible approaches to interesting parties, for the Doctor Baumgartner The time is in the management of the risk of a marriage of love with a woman encountered by the simple game of chance. This concern is very present to the doctor, who, to force solicitations, finally obtained a promise of his Son: 'regarding marriage, we will talk about that  on my return. You guards my solemn promise that I will never take a not so decisive without t in Consult'.

But this promise is not sufficient for the father worried, who conceals hardly that the single insurance of a simple 'consultation' of its opinion is not reassuring. This concern may appear legitimate in a geographical situation where a go-return mail takes approximately six months, while the Act authorizes Antoine to marry in a shorter period of time without further consent than that of his future wife. The annoyance was not slow to appear in the letters of Antoine, who also had on many occasions in the past consulted his father, for subjects much more futile that marriage: 'You seem to have little confidence in me, by the way you me readings on the marriage'. This letter closes the discussions on the subject only a few weeks before the great departure for Australia.

The fear to see his child conclude a marriage without taking into account its opinion puts in light of a more intense the expectations of the Doctor toward the family responsible for overseeing his son. The trust between father and son, if it is reinforced by a close monitoring of parents, is established without penalty. However, the family relationship between the Baumgartner and Moilliet which should operate as warranty, are not very close, and especially they are old. In such a situation, the marriage of James Moilliet with Lisy Sayous, niece of the doctor, intervened in 1853 during the learning of Antoine, appears as a beautiful opportunity to reconcile the two families. This marriage is a renchaînement alliances that serves fully the interests of the future career of Antoine. Sayous Lisy is the person with the closest relationship with the Doctor Baumgartner, and likely to marry at this time. In addition, it appears in the Correspondence that this lady is very close to Baumgartner father. Single daughter, she has been high by the doctor to Saint John. it must be said that the latter has lost his youngest daughter, and that his wife and son are distant from him.

The period of manoeuvring which has surrounded this marriage is relatively short, at least from the point of view of the Father. In February 1853, 10 months before the marriage of Lisy, André Sayous, his father, address a letter to Dr. Baumgartner, on the occasion of the entry in the majority of her daughter, high in Saint John. The question of marriage, which then returns only in the hands of the interested, appears in the letter in a manner appended to the analysis of a situation of fortune precarious. In effect, the parents of Lisy do not have large fortune and the two heritages which him come back are of little importance. 'I hope that some honest man he will find enough of qualifications and charm of the other part, to be satisfied with this dot. Would it be question of someone? You do I not hide, my Dear Doctor, although I have a perfect confidence in the tenderness of your mother for well marry his little girl'. In this letter, it is surprising to see that the father of Lisy is that little interested in the fate of her daughter. The key person of a future Union is not even the doctor, but the mother of the latter. It is not a question of whether André Sayous feels concerned by the destiny of his child, which is certain to the views of what he writes, but good to see that the choice of a spouse is in this case the parents responsible for the education of the young girl.

The geographical position of Lisy Sayous is always perfectly known thanks to the correspondence. If Antoine Baumgartner does not appear at the end of the letter to the sides of his father and his grandmother, it gives its new to his father, suggesting its presence in England. However, Lisy has never carried out only the journey Genève-Birmingham. In August 1851, she went to Birmingham and travel with Antoine, who returns after the past few days to Saint John. During this stay, Antoine indicates that Lisy 'like much' to his cousins english. It Returns in Switzerland in October of the same year, making the trip with James Moilliet and his daughters.

A year later, she travelled to England a second time since the beginning of the learning of Antoine, and made the trip with the Doctor Baumgartner which makes visit to his son. While the doctor returned a few weeks later, Lisy remains among its cousins, and happening Christmas in England. This Extended Stay is probably not planned, and the doctor is concerned with his son who indicates that she will return to Switzerland in September, without that this date be stopped. It is during this stay that a link is established between Lisy and James Moilliet among which she lodge. 'Lisy y a [among James Moilliet], this seems to me, a lot changed for the better. It enjoys a glorious health, radiantly painted on his whole person. It is also more cheerful & more cheerful than I do the recalls in Geneva'.

If in October 1853, Lisy is again located in Saint John, and James Moilliet, with which it has certainly made the return journey, this is only temporary, and she leaves Switzerland permanently between November and Christmas 1853. On 11 December 1853, James Moilliet was again present at Saint John, to marry there with Lisy Sayous. one finds this last become wife of James Moilliet, and installed with him in his ownership of the Elms, where she has spent several months at the beginning of the year, before 29 December 1853. The border between marriage of love and reason is, despite appearances, difficult to draw. The notice of Antoine about this marriage is not brimming with enthusiasm:' You me requests of te tell in detail everything that happened to the receipt of Lisy (...) the more I look, the more I hesitate to arrive at a conclusion on the policy of this marriage, & on the exchange of Mr. Moilliet against Mr. B. Lisy could make this last a happy man, complement its existence it was a noble task, & which could justify my pride well placed. Here Lisy just fill a vacuum that does not exist, it may do little or nothing to Mr. Moilliet. Moreover, I believe that it will conduct a fresh existence & little worried, & C is, I think the great case. It is casée, it is well'.

Antoine does not perceive this alliance as useful to its progress. Yet, this providential strengthening of alliance intervenes in a period where the future of Antoine plays. The learning has started since more than five years, and not always bears no fruit. It is impossible in these conditions not to see that the replacement of a spouse potential, Mr. B, by James Moilliet, serves the interests of Antoine. In the absence of results in the formation of his son, the doctor sees the establish a new family link which tends to tighten the two families. Curious to know the impact of this event on the family Moilliet, he asks his son a narration 'in Detail' of the arrival of the Bride among its cousins.

This renchaînement of Alliance will not bear the fruit expected. Lisy cuts of Saint John, and seems literally embrace another party. The mere fact that the doctor had to resort to his son to obtain information on his niece, clearly shows that the link which existed between him and Lisy has been permanently abandoned. By marrying, Lisy has broken the link which has provisionally united to the doctor, even without doubt also with his father, to establish another one, of the same nature, which binds now only to her husband. However James Moilliet and the doctor do not maintain a regular correspondence in the eyes of the latter. yet, since the marriage of Lisy, the epistolary exchange is real. when they write, the misunderstanding is total, James Moilliet seems very confident in the Australian draft and admits to the doctor hoped for its children a situation comparable to that of Antoine.

While the difficulties accumulate in Australia, Lisy seems however very remote from the Baumgartner. It is simply not aware of the progress of the project, and especially its failure. The disappointment of the Baumgartner, who see move away and Lisy and James Moilliet, is large: 'Thou  hast reason. The marriage of Lisy will have been my loss'. not only the doctor has 'lost' his niece, but still its cousin, who seems to have no more concern for him and his son. Beyond the personal failure, this history shows us that the game of family alliances offers no absolute guarantee of success, in particular when the young person who is at the center of the game has not been able to convince his mentors during his learning.

Letter from Doctor Baumgartner to his aunt, born Amélia Keir, about the death of his son Antoine in Australia (1856)

Madam widow Moilliet, born Keir, Abberley near Worcester (England)
Saint Jean, on 28 July 1856

Madam, Sir, at the time of break to always with parents who are for me the cause of the most terrible misfortunes, I believe it is my duty to a farewell and an explanation to you who testified for your kindness to my unfortunate son, to you which I have always honored the character. That, by false kindest too often customary among the happy of the century, you cache the disasters that destroy my happiness and which leave me alone to moan on this earth, I think easily. Also this is for me a duty to teach you what happens, you must not be only to ignore when our whole family and all our friends in Geneva, have the ears full of my fair complaints, and the heart filled with indignation against the selfish, against the hypocrites who murdered my son.

You have seen from for Australia, this good and honest Antoine, all full of vigor and hope. This trip was already a shame for its leaders, who had done many beautiful promises, and who wanted to keep any. Antoine Lives there a way out of a house where the future is formed before him. Then, it was a test; pleased he took advantage of its chances and staying a few years at the end of the world; unfortunate, he would return to suite. As early as February 1855, having received my poor child of letters which testify of the immense desire that he had to return to Europe, I wrote immediately to Mr. James Moilliet and also to Mr Gem, for their expose all the reasons which were to make them recall our young friend, our child, and for the stave off to join me for this.
I have received from these two men, one of which is my closest relative and had certainly not to complain about me, saw the services multiplied that I had rendered, that answers insulting. I have kept, as well as the copies of my letters. I have done copy and I am circulating among my many friends in Geneva and among my parents of England, to which it is important for me to prove that the horrible death of my son is the work of parents without heart and that I have done my best to save it.

At the same time that my poor child received me letters pressing to decide his return, he also received much more violent of his good friends of Birmingham, gentlemen Moilliet and Gem, to force it to stay. Without doubt there has shaken in him the feeling of the holy obedience subsidiary, the dogma of the duty, the respect and the confidence to his father. Without doubt he was presented the return as a shame, when the return alone could save him. It has that been too successful in this perverse conspiracy against its morality, against his life. The unfortunate Antoine has changed resolution, it no longer has wanted to obey. In vain it has received me twenty letters suppliant, nothing has shaken it. He wanted to try everything, it has succeeded in nothing. Pursued by the vengeance of God that attaches to children disobedient, he arrived in despair. In this terrible state it has received from Mr James Moilliet a last letter, more abhorrent than all the other, and this letter armed his arm guilty against his own life. My only son, my Antoine, the one that I have high with both care, the one to which I have devoted 24 years of my life, the one on which was based all my expectations and that of its venerable ayeule, that the happiness the  rest and the ease waited here, has committed the unforgivable crime of suicide. The 18 March [1856] It is killed in Melbourne.

Such is Madam, the presentation of my misfortune, I think you are the has carefully left ignore. But me, I have no reason to make a secret, having no reproach to make me, than that of not having been search for my son at the end of the world, instead to confine myself to write him a letter. That the author of this assassination to enjoy in peace of its wealth and success of his large family! May God forgive him for the wrong he has done me by its hardness, its greed and its lack of intelligence! Many people, all the world can be in your country, will think that it was natural that the poor Antoine Baumgartner sacrifiât his life and that of his unfortunate father, to ensure the care of a few bales of goods belonging to its parent, the rich James Moilliet. It is too much of an honor for this unknown child to be sacrificed to a great cause. As to me, who at the age of 48 years, see Me deprived of any hope of future happiness by the loss of my only child, will I be permitted to hate those to whom I owe my ruin and the reversal of my hopes, to push for never a niece with a cold heart that has point had pity on me, who read my letters, which had only a word to say that I am making my son, and who has not wanted to say.

Forgive me, Madam, to have disturbed a time your rest in you addressing complaints without remedy. I hope not be accused of you have never failed to respect, and although separated from your son for always, I will always remember the interest that you have testified. A few souvenirs and a mother of 84 years, that is all that remains me. I am of wishes for your happiness, and ending here any report with a family who, in less than a century has combined three times at the mine, and for which I have experienced both of good feelings, I remain, Madam, your very humble servant,

Ant. B. D. Mr

Source: AFB, letter from Doctor Baumgartner to his aunt, born Amélia Keir, about the death of his son Antoine in Australia , 28 July 1856 [Document manuscript].

Private archives of the Baumgartner family